What is Welding?
Welding is a kind of art. Using high heat in metals you can give any shape or the design as you want. This given high heat melts metals. You can cut of metals and make your desired design. It’s exciting to work. You can also join metal sheets together by welding. You need to use some tools to weld, such as welding machine, gloves, safety glass etc.
Before starting your welding journey you need to gather information about welding processing. It will be difficult to work without knowing the details. To know more about welding you need to know about the different types of welding first. Knowing these information about different types of welding will prove safe and will help moving forward.
There are various kinds of welding processing, such as Shielded Metal Arc welding,MIG (Metal Inert Gas), TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas), Flux, Laser Beam Welding, Electron Beam Welding, Gas Welding, Electric Arc Welding, Submerged Arc Welding, Residence Welding, Plasma Arc Welding, Atomic Hydrogen Welding, Electro slag and many more.
Go through the article to know more about different types of welding. Below you will get more information about the types of welding processing.
1.MIG (Gas Metal Arc Welding
MIG welding is so simple that a new welder also does it easily. This welding process refers to metallic gas but it is also known as Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW). In this welding process, you will need an external supply of shielding gas. Most used gas for MIG welding is magnesium, copper, aluminum, bronze, silicon, stainless steel and carbon steel.
This engraving process uses an electrode fed frequently by a welding gun and the operator must pull a trigger to feed the adaptable electrode. An electric arc provides through the electrode which creates heat to melt the substance. Metal sheets or pieces can be joined for their molten conditions.
This process of welding is the easiest of all. And so it is most preferable for the newcomers and DIY lovers. Its low heat input, minimum weld clean up requirements, superior electrical efficiency and reducing welding fumes makes it different from the other methods.
Without using the shield gas you can’t operate the process and makes the technique expensive. Using MIG you can’t do overhead or vertical welding. Which limits the process. The process doesn’t work on wide substances. It also doesn’t work on dirty and rusty metal sheets. It needs clear materials to work.
2.TIG - Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
TIG, by the name we can guess that the process uses a tungsten electrode which is not consumable. You can generate no filler metal. The process welds two metal sheets together. You can add one more filler metal if you want and you need to feed it by your hand. The extra filler metal will increase the mechanical goods of metals. This process also called Heliarc welding.
TIG also need a gas supply from out site as MIG. The gas protects the weld. Mostly used gases in TIG are argon-helium mixture or argon. This welding process uses for bikes, aerospace welding and piping system etc. This welding process is professionals best choice and not suitable for beginners.
TIG provides you cleaned weld so you don’t need to clean it up or worry about the debris. It provides clean weld on thin materials. If you want its best performance then you need to use it indoors. Because the outdoor result may not please you much.
You may please with the work of TIG but not with the price. Its tools are expensive but the deposition rate is low. But it's welding can beat the other welding process. You can use TIG on stainless steel, nickel, copper, aluminum and magnesium.
3.STICK-Shielded Metal Arc Welding
This welding process started in the 1930s. From then on the process is to keep updating and improved now. The welding process is easy to acquire. It is a known method because of its simplicity and cheap operating cost. It welds neatly. The process doesn’t need costly tools.
This process generates about 6500 °F temperatures. The welding machine is mostly identified by its stick. The tip of the stick generates temperature and use for welding. Electricity flows through the electrode. The electrode used for this method is made up for a key wire.
This welding process is suitable for construction, steel erection, pipeline welding and heavy equipment repair. In this technique, the molten metal is secured from oxides and nitrates. The welding equipment is easy to carry. Here shielding gas is unnecessary so you can use the process when it is raining or windy outside. Which is not possible with MIG or TIG welding.
The great advantage of this process is you can use the process of rust and dirt caught metals. This process needs high operating skills. It will take time to be skilful in this method. This welding process produces huge waste. This technique is not suitable for tiny metal sheets. Using the process may not bring you the best result. It could endanger you in the harsh climate.
4.FCAW (Flux Cored Arc Welding)
FCAW is similar to MIG. This process also needs a frequently fed electrode. But the difference is in the wires. FCAW requires a wire of tube shape which is full of flux. Two types of flux core wire are available. One is shield wires and the other is social wires. We recommend your social wires for outdoor use because they are able to work in wind. The double shield uses an external welding gas and stream to protect weld puddle.
This is an easy learning method and cost low. It is good for both new welders and the experienced. The process comparatively wastes less than the other welding process because of its higher electrode efficiency. The process reduces welding fumes and does not need any external shielding gas. So it does not have any gas tank which makes it lighter and portable. This is a clean type welding process so you don’t need to bother about cleaning. Flux Cored Arc Welding works faster than the other welding process. This technique also provides security against overheating.
But it has limitations in the requisition of technology. The result of the process might not be as perfect as the other methods. This process is not suitable for tiny substances. It is good for mild steel welding.
5.Electric arc welding
The heat needed in electric arc welding to fuse the metal is obtained from the electric pressure between the base metal and an electrode. The process produces a temperature of about 4000 °C - 6000 °C. In this process, the metal piece needs to be cleaned. You need to keep the metal pieces in fixtures. The electrode has to place as creating angle 60-80 degree with the metal piece in the electrode holder.
For this welding process, you will need a welding machine, electrode holder, cables, lugs and Cable connectors, chipping hammer, wire brush, protective clothing, and screen shield. Set up cost is high. It needs additional electronic parts which cost high. Impacts of radiation is extreme.
The process provides a gas around the arc so the welding area does not affect by oxidation. The welding speed is high. You don’t need to clean much after welding. Its hydrogen process is ultra-low.
Gas welding uses the heat of flames to join metals. The process provides heat at a certain point of two metals so they melt and join together. This heat-based welding process is older than many welding process. This process is popular because it is easy to operate and it’s not expensive. Because the process is easy new welders also can operate it easily. The process performs better is repairing and constructing works.
You will need an equipment to produce high temperature flames. Gas welding uses combination of oxygen and highly combustible gas. Oxygen generally combined with hydrogen, acetylene, propylene, gasoline, butane and many more.
Gas welding can weld ferrous metals and nonferrous metal as well. There is no need of electricity to operate this process which means you can use the process such place which do not have electricity. Gas welding’s one more specialty is its portability. Gas welding is not suitable for thick metals. You can’t use the process on high strength steel. Its heat rate is not so high.
7.SAW (Submerged Arc Welding)
In submerged arc welding a tubular electrode can feed the consumer energy into a regular welding area. A granulated flux has compounds manganese oxide, silica, lime, calcium fluoride and more. A current lane creates a path through the electrode and the metal piece when the flux melts.
The deposit rate of this process is high. It will create a little amount of welding smoke. You can do the process without any training. You can use this technique both in outdoor and indoor. There is no chance of sprinkles as it is submerged into the flux blanket.
This process doesn’t work on some particular metals. The process is imperfect for pipes and vessels. The uses of flux is not easy. The flux can affect your health.
In this process, a liquid state or molten state forms the joint. This process uses resistance to producing heat. The method is pollution-free which is highly appreciable. Electric resistance generates heat. Flowing of current through electric resistance will generate heat. The electric coil works similarly.
This process is very easy that beginners can do it easily and experts are not needed to do this. The thinness of the method is 0.1 mm and the thickness is 20 mm. The production rate is very high. You can weld both similar and dissimilar metals using this process. Welding speed is also high. No protecting gases, filler metal or flux needed.
The tools cost is high. It doesn’t work on thick metals. For high conductive equipment, the process is not much proficient. The process needs high electric power.
9.Electron Beam Welding (EBM)
Electron beam welding is the perfect welding process for hard to weld and dissimilar metals. Electrons are generated through the gun using the electronic field and then accelerated at very high speeds. This high-speed explosion of electrons uses magnetic fields and specifically involves the elements needed to join. Electrons convert the kinetic energy of materials to heat. The heat melts metals and joins together. The existence of gas molecules can affect the beam so where the welding occurs the place have to be fully air free.
EBW is massively automated and operated with a computer. You need to use cleaned and inspected metals for EBW. During the welding process, fixtures will help you to place the parts securely. CNC table will help you to shift the pieces specifically under the electron beam when you are processing the welding.
This process provides strong and tight welding. It doesn’t have much movement problem. Using EBW you can reach narrow areas to weld. It does not contain a wide heat affected zone. There is no need for filler metal. Using the process you can weld a thick piece to a thin one. The expense of the equipment for EBW is very high. The production expenses are high as well.
Solid process is a group of welding process. These processes are also known as solid state bonding process. Diffusion welding, cold welding, explosion welding, friction welding, forge welding, roll welding, ultrasonic welding and hot pressure welding are the member of the welding group. In all of these processes time, temperature, and pressure individually or in combine produce consistency of the base metal without melting it.
The process is free from microstructural defects, such as nonmetallic, pores, segregation of alloying elements and inclusions. Fluxes, filler material or shielding gases are not needed. You can join dissimilar metals by using the process.
Before starting the surface need to be prepared. You may do it by brushing or sanding, degreasing or removing oxides. Equipment is expensive.
11.Laser Beam Welding
In the laser beam welding process joins two pieces of metal together by using a laser. Laser beams produce much heat to melt the materials to join and fill its cavity. When it cools it becomes a strong joined piece. Robotics machinery automates this profitable welding process easily. This process is commonly consumed in the automotive industry.
There are three types of laser used. The gas laser produces laser by using gas mixtures, such as helium, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The solid-state laser uses solid elements as media such as neodymium in glass, synthetic ruby crystal and neodymium in yttrium aluminum garnet. Fiber laser uses optical fiber as a medium.
This process provides you with high-quality welding. For mass production with robotic equipment, you can use laser beam welding. It doesn’t need an electrode. It is a contactless process so no tool wears needs. It does not take much time for welding in thick metal. You can weld hardly accessible areas easily using LBW. The process doesn’t produce X-Rays so no X-Ray shielding needed.
You will need a skilful operator to do the process. It has limited welding thickness and that is 19mm. Laser beam welding is an expensive process. Its maintenance cost is high as well. Though it cools rapidly it may produce cracks in metals. The process has very low energy conversion efficiency which is below 10%.
Types of welding
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